A major energy reserve
Biomass refers to all organic matter of animal or plant origin that can be used to produce energy.
Thermal processes (pyrolysis, gasification, direct combustion) or biochemical processes (methanization) are used to transform this matter into electricity or heat. These processes are increasingly used in order to recycle agricultural, food industry, forestry waste as well as household waste. Biomass energy includes 3 main sectors: firewood (or solid biomass), biogas and biofuels. A combination of heat and electricity can be produced, this is what we call cogeneration.
A perfectly tried and tested technology
First appearing in the 19thcentury, hydraulic energy produces electricity powered by the driving force of water. This force can come from waterfalls, river and waterway flows or even tides.
There are 2 types of hydraulic power plants:
- “run-of-the-river” systems, in which river water flows continuously through a turbine,
- systems with dams to retain and store water.
Hydropower is a mastered energy source, which has the advantage of being rapidly deployable to deal with consumption peaks. It is also quite competitive due to the long lifespan and the low cost of hydroelectric plants.